Created by: Barrett Serrato, Patrick Yoder, Eric Hanson, James Wyatt, Blake Etchison, Scott Szucs, Traci Reed, Quinton Featherstone, and Chris Skinner
Edited by: Hannah Goeb, Colton Prescott, and Katie Keesom
According to Wikipedia, Netvibes is a "multi-lingual Ajax-based personalized start page." Netvibes was founded by Tariq Krim in 2005. It is very easy to use and is available anywhere and everywhere. Netvibes is much like iGoogle and Microsoft Live. These personalized start up pages are organized into tabs with each tab containing "user-defined modules."These personalized modules include anything you want on your web page. Users can put their favorite website, blogs, email, podcast, and social networks all in one place. Some examples to put on a personal web page would be local forecasts, calendars, to-do lists, e-mail, podcast, blogs, maps, videos, pictures, facebook, etc. Everything you could possibly imagine is available to put on your page.
You can personalize your page by creating a theme or using an existing theme. You can also share your customized page with other individuals or Netvibes Ecosystems. The Netvibes Ecosystems is a collection of user submitted widgets where others can look at your customized web page. You can share information with anyone you want. Today, Netvibes is a global community of users controlling their digital lives. 
 Basically, Netvibes:
- Helps you manage your digital life.
- Brings all your favorite things on the internet together in your own personal Netvibes page.
- Allows you to share with your friends your favorite modules.
- and is 100% personally customized- no ads, no logos, no corporate control.
1.1 Elementary Education
Netvibes was designed in 2005 by Tariq Krim, who saw an overwhelming amount of information on the web that needed to be funneled down into applicable information. The amount of information was distracting him, and he felt as if there were millions of websites petitioning for his attention. Krim's idea began as a tool for himself to use. He had 17 blogs and wanted a way to monitor them from one place. When Krim published the web address of the site he created, it got 15,000 users in one day.  Since many people had the same wants as Krim, he continued to improve the site. Instead of people opening their internet to a generic web protal's homepage (such as Google or AOL), Krim wanted people to be able to customize their homepage. He wanted the homepage to be a portal to all needed information, with access points to frequently used websites and daily information such as weather. Now, Netvibes is used globally for this very purpose, and the application is maintained in three offices around the world: San Francisco, Paris, and London. Now a full-fledged business, the company has a CEO, investors, and has won much recognition and many awards. Part of their success comes from keeping Netvibes current, reliable, and updated. As Krim said in 2007, "What we are looking at with Netvibes is the idea of creating a long-term relationship with the user ... and provide the real services for the user." There are full-time employees who work on creating new widgets for Netvibes as well as updating old ones and maintaining the credibility.
Year Active:">Year Active:
Type of Web 2.0 Application:">Type of Web 2.0 Application:
Information Filtering/Homepage Editing/Organizing Tool
Address: 38, Rue Sentier
Step One">Step One
The first step to setting up a Netvibes account is to first find the website itself. You can do this by typing [www.netvibes.com] into your web browser's address bar at the top of the page. Another way to find the website is to simply type Netvibes into your web browser's search engine (like Google, for example). Once this is accomplished, a list of websites should appear and, in most cases, the first website with Netvibes standing out should be there. Go ahead and click on that and it should take you to the website. When you arrive at the website it asks for your city, state, and country.
Step Two">Step Two
Once that is filled out, click on next and it will take you to an "Interests," set up window. In the interests window you can select what you want personally on your page like: news, business, sports, TV, movies, and music, tools and technology, fun and games, lifestyle, shopping, and travel.
Step Three">Step Three
Once selected hit the next icon and it will take you to the "Your page is ready" window. It includes a congratulations statement and tells you that you can add and remove widgets whenever you want to, plus it gives more partner widgets to choose from. Then hit the "Show me my page," icon and it will create your page and then take you to it.
Step Four">Step Four
After Step Three is accomplished, you are all set and ready to do whatever you want with you brand new homepage if you wish it to be.
You might already know (or maybe you don't) that Netvibes was designed to be an internet homepage, but it can also be used as a communications website as well. The next step is realizing what you designed your page to be. Once you see all the devices you installed, it's to time to move on to the next step. In the upper right hand corner of your page you will find a "Sign up now" icon. Click on that if you want to sign up. A window will pop up asking for your e-mail address, password, and password confirmation.
Step Five">Step Five
Once that is filled out, check off the "I agree with the Terms of Service," and then hit the "Sign Up" icon. Then it should create your page and then take you to it. In the upper left hand corner there will be another congratulations notification. It says your're registered and that your data is now saved.
It also asks you if you want to go ahead and create your public page to publish your own page which is the next step. In the upper right hand corner there should be a "Create your public page" icon, go ahead and click that if you wish to continue. After this an e-mail confirmation link should appear in the upper left hand corner. Go ahead and check it out to make sure it's correct and then hit next. The website will then send you a confirmation e-mail about an information link to activate you public page.
Step Six">Step Six
After clicking on next the website will ask you for some more general information such as: your full name, gender and age, then go ahead and click on next. The website then takes to the next step which is choose which url you wish to use for the website, you can use either of the first two or make up your own but make sure you select one of them. Then select whether your're using the website for Personal or Pro usage.
Then click on the finish icon.
Step Seven">Step Seven
Once again another congratulations notification will appear and the next step is to find your friends on Netvibes. In the upper right hand corner there is the "Find your friends on Netvibes," icon, go ahead and click on that. It will then take you to a friend's finder page. However, there is a catch you must know your friends e-mail address through Gmail, Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail/ MSN, Facebook, or Outlook/ Mail. You can then send your friends, family members, teachers, or whoever, e-mails wanting them to join Netvibes.
Step Eight">Step Eight
If you have a Facebook account you can go ahead and log on to Facebook from Netvibes and select your friends that you want to join. However, if you use this method most likely what will happen is none of your friends will have an account so you will probably have to use one of the other methods to find them. Once this is accomplished you should return to your home page and add a title to your page which can be found at the center of the top part of the page. Then you should check back with your e-mail account to see if you received Netvibes confirmation e-mail. The e-mail should tell you about your success in creating an account and where to turn to if you need any help with the website.
The only thing left to do from this point on is to go out and navigate throughout the great world of Netvibes. Enjoy!
All information comes directly from www.netvibes.com
Reader View - Within Netvibes, there is a feature called "reader view". Some people may find Netvibes to be very cluttered with information and widgets scattered across the computer screen. If a user does not like looking at all the widgets, they can click on the "reader view" button on the top toolbar. The user may find this set up to be more organized. All the widgets are on the left side in different categories. From there, one can click on a category and see links to different websites.
Labs-* *The Labs part of shows you new projects that the creators have been working on. For example, there is a new Themes Designer tool that lets you create themes for Netvibes. Another new project is the Tag Cloud. It displays a tag cloud of what you have read. The most interesting new project is the Spring Cleaning one. This analyzes your feeds for articles you haven't read so it can clean up your page. Click here to check out the applications.
Translator - Netvibes offers the opportunity to translate web pages and documents to other languages. This is very helpful since Netvibes is based in France, some information and pages are in French. It also allows you to take information from pages outside Netvibes and translate it into your language. Whether it be English, Spanish, or an array of languages, Netvibes can help you understand its applications.
Customized Settings - You can customize your Netvibes page not only to include your personalized web and news pages, but also certain themes that you enjoy. You can change the background color and themes to express your personal style. You can also change the set up of your pages to work specifically for you and organize your pages to your liking.
Widgets- A web widget is a stand-alone application that can be embedded into third party sites by any user on a page where they have rights of authorship. There is a section on Netvibes specifically for searching and looking up widgets. One can type in a topic on the "search for widgets" bar and Netvibes will show what widgets are available for that topic. Click here to try out the "search for widgets" page on Netvibes.
Themes- There are 5,245 different theme pages that users use to make their own personalized websites. Your theme can have your own color scheme and personalized theme that will work the best for that person. People can also create their own background and page.
Awards Netvibes has Received- Netvibes has been a very successful and award winning website that has won awards like the Crunchies award, Time Magazines top 50 Websites, Webware 100, Web 2.0 award, PC World, WebUsers Gold award, Always On Media, Dutch Web 2.0 awards, US magazine Business 2.0 . These are just some of the awards Netvibes has won.
How to get Help- Getting help on Netvibes is pretty simple. The help tab has four different tabs so the users can get help as quick as possible. There is a Customer Support, FAQ, Contact Us, and a Service Status link. There is help for any situation that ypu will possibly have.
Subscribing to Other Peoples Netvibes- On netvibes people can subscribe to different friends, individuals, brands, and Artist. This is a way people can interact with each other. Its also a good way for fans of the famous people can keep up to date with what their idols are up too.
Netvibes, as a homepage platform, offers something that is very important for all those who use it. That very important something is diversity. Netvibes pulls in all of its information from a wide variety of sources. News, Shopping, E-mail, Business, Sports, Entertainment, Tool's and Technology, can use the search engine google to look up information,Fun & Games, Travel, and Lifestyle are all applications that have a large amount information backed by the most popular sites in each of their genre's.
When one logs onto the news section of Netvibes, a large array of various credited news resources is brought up on the screen. (Example screenshot shown below, left). Streaming media and text is brought to the use from institutions like CNN, CBS News, Google News, The Wall Street Journal, The Lost Angeles Times, The Washington Post, and Time Magazine. It is evident to see that if one wanted to find the most recent news, Netvibes has more than enough credited, informative sites that one can choose to read from.
The travel section displays applications from a wide distribution from the genres top-rated institutions. (Example screenshot shown below, right). Travelocity, Global Hotel Review, Concierge.com, Matador Travel Features, and many more applications are all at the disposal of the user in the pursuit of various travel destinations. Easy access to to travel information all over the world is offered to the user on this section of Netvibes.
In the Business section of Netvibes, articles and media streams from Financial Times, Newsweek, Forbes Business News, and Portfolio.com are all at the user's hands any time they need it. (Example screenshot shown below, left). Along with these outstanding business media organization sites, the business section also provides an up-to-date stock ticker that one can enter his or her stocks on to. The stock ticker is a reliable source, it is powered by NASDAQ.
The sport section offers headlines from various news sites all over the world. (Example screenshot shown below, right) Also there are numerous live tickers that offer current sports scores and news. Also there is a section that is completely in Spanish. This section tells of what is current in the arena of Spanish sports and news. European and Australian sports news is also offered for anyone interested in the sporting events of these areas.
A wide variety of sites are used to pull in information about the current state of the entertainment and media sections. (Example screenshot shown below, left). New York Magazine, LA Times Entertainment, and Youtube are all but a few of the applications that Netvibes provides on its homepage for its users to diversify their internet experience. Once again, users have instant access to the streaming media files that are provided by Youtube and CBS entertainment sections located in this section.
The Tools and Technology section is a very unique and exciting features.(Example screenshot shown below, right). Once logged on, users can use the Yellow Pages section to find out any desired information that they need. If one cannot find what they need on Yellow pages, they can simply move over their mouse and search for information on the i-Metro application. Also this section provides current information on the state of today's science and technology. Sites such as Wired.com, Tech Crunch, and Technology Review Feed, are all at the disposal of the user.
The fun and games section offers a wide variety of different applications that one can use to entertain themselves. (Example screenshot shown below, left). There is an emphasis on mind games that help challenge the user in an intellectual way. The games pages, like all pages, can be customized to the likings of each user of Netvibes.
For those who are conscious of their style, Netvibes offers a great page for useful material. (Example screenshot shown below, right). Everyone knows that style and lifestyle play a large role in the success factor of a person. The Lifestyle page offers useful information from sites including, WonderHowTo.com, Cooking Light, New York Magazine, and Urbanspoon.
Also, one can change the appearance of their Netvibes homepage to suit their specific liking. One can click on the settings options on the toolbar and pick what language, theme, local content and general setting that they would like to use on their site. One can also click on the contacts option and communicate with their friends that also have a Netvibes homepage.
Overall, it is easy to see that Netvibes offers it user and wide variety of applications in each of the specific genres it offers. Netvibes only provides its users with the very best and top-rated websites and organizations. With such a wide variety of applications to use, it is obvious to see that there is a large amount of information that can be easily accessed through the use of Netvibes that can help anyone throughout their daily lives.
One of the many special features that Netvibes has to offer is the ability to create online communities within the application. Now for those of you who do not know what online communities are: they are groups of people that interact for social, professional, educational, or other purposes, but instead of interacting face-to-face, they interact by means of media (such as telephone, e-mail, social networks, etc.).Online communities are internet-based, and they give people the chance to gather together in a shared online space, communicate, and connect to each other without being physically in the same place. Online communities offer the opportunity to do many things, and are available in different forms (such as chat rooms, discussion boards, and forums). So, basically an online community is what the members decide to make out of it.
A typical question about online communities is, "What is the purpose?", and this is very easily answered. First of all, online communities allow people to socialize with other people in ways that might not be possible on a daily basis. Activities such as meeting new people, sharing stories, and exchanging opinions are very common for online communities. Another purpose is to distribute ideas and information easily with people who are already well-informed about a topic. These types of online communities are usually based around discussion boards, with people from all around the world. The most important feature for our purpose, though, is the fact that online communities allow people to work together without actually being together. Work groups within companies and even between companies use online communities to build their team, keep in touch, and even work on projects together.This can be very valuable in a work setting such as schools or other educational places. Teachers have the ability of sharing information with other teachers, or sharing how to handle certain situations that might occur in the classroom. School supervisors have the ability to exchange information about school issues. Parents even have the ability to voice their opinion more freely, and to be more involved with their child's academic progress. The use of online communities in school settings offers an endless possibility of advantages for everyone involved. Teachers can become friends with other teachers, much like Facebook, and see what the other teachers are viewing and using in their pages. This allows for a "forum" like application and a greater networking among teachers. They can share lesson plans, web quest material, and other resources to make their classroom learning experience even greater. Parents could even "friend" their child's teachers and have an up to date understanding of what their child was studying at the current time.
Netvibes provides the opportunity of having your very own, custom-made, start-up page, but it also makes it easy to create online communities such as the ones described above. Educationally, online communities are seldom used and Netvibes is practically non-existent. So, the combination of the two is unheard of until now. The possibilities are endless, though, with interaction between students, teachers, supervisors, and even experts in certain areas of study. All or even pairs of the two can be brought together (through Netvibes) to provide interactive ways of learning. Online communities benefit everyone involved!
In the beginning Netvibes was first designed to be for American usage but more recently it has joined the international community for easier use throughout the world. It has gotten so big now that Business Wire announced on June 21, 2007, that "The Netvibes universe spans the globe: over 500 official content partnerships with world's leading media and eCommerce companies, celebrities, and non-profits.". Some of the major partnerships are the International Herald Tribune, Die Welt, Le Monde.fr, Le Figaro, El Mundo, El Paris, U.S. News & World Report, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Wired, Brightcove and Shopping.com. If you want to know the complete list you can visit the website. Some notable non-profits are Harvard and some notable celebrities are 50-Cent and Moby. In more recent times Netvibes has announced that it has pushed even farther into the international community by creating partnerships with Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. CEO and founder of Netvibes then announced that "This is concrete proof that the future of all media lies in deep personalization. No other Internet company can claim as many officially branded content partnerships in this many countries and languages." 
There are quite a few new partnerships throughout the world starting in Europe with IDG UK, Computerworld, Les Echos, L'Equipe, 20 Minutes, Elle France, and Rockol.it. In Asia there is Agile Media, ChinaVenture, eNet, HiPiHi HoodongWiki and Sports CN. And in North America there is U.S. News and World Report, Wired, Topix, Inside Edition, Entertainment Tonight, Glam.com, Brightcove, ContentNext Media, CollegeHumor, Dr. Phil, and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). The managing director of IDG UK Kit Gould said, "Personalization, customization, and interoperability between content platforms is a reality of today's Web. By partnerning with Netvibes in Europe, we are widening our reach and offering new and existing users the ability to access IDG content via Netvibes' exciting new Universe feature, which aggregates RSS content from our leading brands such as Computerworld, Techworld, Macworld and PC Advisor into customizable, manageable, and themed modules." As you can tell Netvibes has many international partnerships and relations with several countries so it makes it extremely easy for users to access information by simply adding it by clicking on the "add content" button to add different information from all over.
Anyone of the above resources can be added to your own personal Netvibes account. Netvibes was also designed to be a international communications database as well. You simply use you e-mail account of your choice and make your Netvibes e-mail account. You can find friends throughout the world by adding them through various searches of different forms of communication like Myspace, Facebook, Hotmail, Yahoo!, G-mail, Microsoft Outlook, etc. If you want to know more about how you can do this you can visit the How to Set- Up Netvibes page. Netvibes works just like anyone of these communications accounts so it's rather easy to set up and to work on. As you can surmize Netvibes is very easy to communicate both nationally and internationally. Netvibes also makes it easy to access any of these other forms of communications by adding a direct link to them. Another universal use of Netvibes is the ability to access Youtube from it as well. Even though Youtube is mainly used for personal video usage it's now being used for more communication purposes and since a large part of the world uses Youtube people can also use this form of communication through Netvibes as well. A good example of this would be a teacher or proffessor putting their class discussion on Youtube so that students can have access to it even if they can't make it to school. So once again as you can already imagine Netvibes is now more internationally connected then ever before.
Netvibes is extremely creative and well suitable for elementary education. In this educational setting, teachers will be able to create pages for students to do all their work on. Teachers can have all the necessary websites for students to do research. Teachers will be able to put all sorts of news websites and informational websites needed. This will help narrow the search for students, and help teachers to know what is in store for student's projects. This will make for a clear understanding of what students have to do. Following directions is very crucial when it comes to elementary students. Netvibes causes less for these students to comprehend, making the learning environment better for everyone.
Teachers can put all sorts of websites on to their Netvibes webpage. Being able to put all sorts of things from Google to YouTube will help greatly. This will help to make these WebPages more interesting and fun for younger students. There isn't much you need for elementary students. You can really put the basics onto your Netvibes and cause fewer problems for everyone.
Netvibes allows people to share information with each other. With schools having very close communities with teachers, Netvibes will allow teachers to share many things. When teachers find different websites that really help students or really benefit themselves, they will be able to share it with the entire school they are at. Teachers will be able to get emails and things of that sort, making information easily shared. Sharing can really allow schools to come up with the best learning environment possible for students and staff.
Schools typically like to run on a certain system they want their teachers to follow. Netvibes allows schools to set up a learning system for the entire school to follow. With this being said, it will create an easy path to follow for teachers, as well as, young elementary students. Schools will be able to get all the needed websites and things for all classes and create Netvibes for them. Schools can also break down their system and create different Netvibes for different classes. So these young students can go to the certain Netvibes pages for each class, so not too much information is put onto one page, creating an enormous confusion for young students.
Lastly, Netvibes is something can be designed and set up creatively. Schools can really make things fun for young students with these Netvibes. It will create more interest in the classroom because students can have fun while on the Netvibes with all that you can put on them. Teachers can make things fun and interesting simply through Netvibes and don't have to send students all over the internet to do it.
This is an example of lesson plan using Netvibes that could be used to help teach an elemantary school classroom.
Document: Netvibes STEM Elementary Lesson Plan
PDF: Netvibes STEM Elementary Lesson Plan
Document: Netvibes Elementary Lesson Plan
Document: ^Netvibes Beef Cattle lesson plan.docx
Netvibes is an incredible source for a teacher especially a secondary teacher. Netvibes allows a teacher to create his or her own page that is personalized at their own free will. For example, a history teacher could use this page to create notes for his class, brush up on some current news before current events in his class, or show video stream with just the click of a button. Agriculture teachers could use it to inform students of current grain prices, agriculture markets, and problems in the industry. Art teachers could use it to interact with artists web pages and keep students up to date on modern art. Netvibes offers credible news sources such as:
- CBS News
- The Wall Street Journal
- Google News
- Los Angeles Times
- The Washington Post
- and any other site that one may want to add
Netvibes can be used for teachers that don't necessarily have a classroom as well! For those Physical Education teachers Netvibes allows them to have all the sports coverage on one page. They offer espn.com, Los Angeles Times Sports, CBS Sports, and any other sports broadcasters that you may want to add.
Within this program you can also create groups. Teachers are able to interact within their own community by writing on ones wall. It is almost like facebook in the way the wall is set up and teachers are allowed the opportunity to talk to other teachers around the world. The private page is also able to be viewed by visitors. Teachers could post homework assignments on this page, notes, test schedule's and any other sort of information they feel may be helpful to their students.
Netvibes could also be used for student interaction as well. A teacher could have their students set up an account so they could be active on their current events, look up answers to worksheets, use for reports, socialize with friends, and talk to other students around the world. Students could have any news site they wanted plus they can add Facebook to their page along with sports, instant messengers and any other websites. It's a great way to introduce kids to the internet and the many uses that it can be used for besides facebook and games.
Document: [Netvibes Animal Science Lesson Plan|download/attachments/4293902/Animal+Science+Lesson+Plan.doc?version=1&modificationDate=1298511340988||||\||]
PDF: [Netvibes Animal Science Lesson Plan]
Netvibes provides post-secondary teachers or professors the opportunity to get students to interact in a fun and captivating way. Netvibes easy access and tools can allow a teacher to incorporate the program into classroom work. Professors can create their own page on Netvibes that will provide them with many different sources about current events or news, stock market development, and various other tools that they can use in class during a day. These tools are especially helpful in classes that focus solely on current events and issues within the world or economy. Professors have the ability to use Netvibes as an organizational tool. Netvibes provides a calendar, a to-do list, and notes that can be attached directly on the homepage. This will allow the professors to keep track of their daily schedule and what they have planned for class that day.
Teachers can help their students become more organized as well by using Netvibes in class. A professor can influence a student to develop a Netvibes webpage in order to keep up with what is being taught in class. As far as organization goes, a professor could make their students create the webpage and place all of their issued homework on the calendar so the students are aware of when something is due.
Netvibes presents a useful resource for students at the post-secondary level in many different ways. Post-secondary students are given the opportunity to discover information that can not only help them with school work, but that can give them something to do in between classes or homework. Netvibes provides numerous ways to accommodate a college students interests. As far as helping with school work, Netvibes has the option of viewing such things as stock market and the most recent events straight from reliable news sources such as CNN, The Wall Street Journal, CBS News, and the Los Angeles Times along with many others.
When college students need the relaxing break in between classes or homework, Netvibes has many options to entertain the students. These features include the latest gossip on celebrities, top 10 YouTube videos, full episodes of television shows, the latest news from the world of sports, and tons of online video games. College students today are noticeably intrigued by various social networking sites such as Facebook and Myspace.
Students are given the option of checking both social networks at the same time right through Netvibes. This allows students to take less time on such websites and provides more time for school work to be completed, thus making Netvibes somewhat of a time saver. Students can also present photography through a website that feeds into Netvibes known as Flickr. Netvibes also gives the latest weather updates for students to help them prepare for their walk to class or travel information for frequent trips home for the holidays. Students, much like the professors, can use Netvibes to stay organized with such widgets as the calendar, to-do lists, and web notes. Access to email is also available through Netvibes.
With post-secondary students, homework is given abundantly, so students are usually always busy with work. The use of Netvibes gives a quicker alternative for students to check their favorite sports team, current news, or look at their Facebooks or Myspaces instead of wasting time pulling up all the webpages. As stated previously, the preservation of time is very important for college students and Netvibes provides that option.
Document: Beef Cattle lesson plan.docx
Netvibes can be used to manage your business/industry in 2 different ways; Personal business & stocks, and Community business advertisements, news, and reviews. First let me inform you about the ways in which you can use Netvibes for your personal or maybe even private business.
For personal and/or private business, you can do multiple things. Sometimes you would just like to see how your stocks did for the day, week, month, or maybe even the year in order to analyze what could happen to it in the future. This can be done by adding one of the widgets that allows you to be capable of putting all of your stocks onto one page to view all at once. Also, on your business section page you would have multiple other widgets that are news (international and national) related about the stock markets along with major headlines that could potentially impact the economy in some form.
Now let's look at the ways that you can use Netvibes for business advertisements, news, and blogs. You would put these kinds of things onto what is called a community page. These pages can be viewed by anyone. Therefore, you would want this page to be very catchy and attractive. Also, you would want to have a brief description of your business, who you are, what you do, and what your trying to accomplish. You would then have news articles that might have been published about you in any of the local or national newspapers. After completing all of that, you would create a blog on your community page. By creating a blog, you allow customers and other business people to give you some feedback on your business or products. This will allow for improvements to be made on your products. These community Netvibes would be much more common for those new, small businesses in a small town or city. The bigger and more popular businesses of today already have their own website that has the same and often more information about their business for their customers along with a feedback page about a product.
Netvibes can be made and used for both personal and community business. This can definitely help you in your personal business and the starting of a new one in a different community.